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  • In spite of this unexpectedly after


    In spite of this, unexpectedly, after three-week cherry puree consumption no AC increase was observed, irrespective of the method used (Table 2). A statistically significant decrease of AC was even measured by LOX-FL and ORAC methods (−3.5% and −9%, respectively). Nevertheless, a much more evident decrease of PxL (Table 2) was observed (−21%). As a consequence, AOB values were found to significantly increase (from +23 to +39%, Fig. 1). In order to check whether this observation may be generalized or should be strictly referred to the use of cherry puree, a second investigation was carried out. Eleven subjects were trained to have a diet rich in plant antioxidants (see Section 2.3), without the constant assumption of a specific source of antioxidants. This approach allows a higher compliance of the subjects to the study and a generalization of the effect of food antioxidants. In the light of the chance of subjects to choose daily among different antioxidant-rich foods, in this investigation a longer period (eight-week) was considered in order to consolidate the effect on serum antioxidant status over the time. Once again, AC measurements at the end of the study were not able to highlight a serum AC increase (Table 2); a significant decrease was even measured by LOX-FL and ORAC methods (−8.5% and −7%, respectively). However, the decrease of PxL (−22%) generated statistically increased AOB values (Fig. 2), as already observed in the three-week investigation. Interestingly, also in this second investigation all three modes to measure AOB were suitable to highlight an about 22–30% increase of AOB (Fig. 2). Interestingly, three-week cherry puree consumption also induced a significant decrease of serum CRP, fasting Dryocrassin ABBA and BMI, equal to −20%, −5% and −1.5%, respectively (Fig. 3A-C). Similarly, after eight weeks of MFAP nutritional intervention a significant decrease of CRP, fasting glucose, and BMI was also observed (−70%, −4.1% and −1.8%, respectively) (Fig. 3A′-C′). All observed changes remained within the normal clinical range.
    Discussion This paper arises from the observation that the novel AOB parameter, expressed as AC/PxL ratio, may represent a powerful tool to evaluate rapid changes in antioxidant status of blood/serum/plasma after food intake. In fact, AOB showed high performance in analysing serum antioxidant status changes during few hours after food intake (Laus et al., 2017). In this paper, for the first time, AOB measurements were applied to long-term investigations.
    Introduction Polysaccharide is one of the effective components from many traditional medicines, and has many functions, such as antioxidant activities, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, anti-aging, and so on. Furthermore, the extraction, purification, and action mechanism of polysaccharide from traditional medicine are eye-catching [1]. Antioxidation includes antioxidation in vivo and in vitro. Antioxidant activities in vitro mainly mean hydroxyl free radical scavenging, super oxygen anion removal, reducing power, lipid peroxidation resistance, etc. The antioxidation in vivo is mainly determined by the total antioxidant capacity, e.g. superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities of serum, liver, heart and kidney of mice. At present, the effect of polysaccharide on antioxidant activities is only to verify the antioxidant properties, but the relationship between antioxidation and structure is still unclear. Herein, we mainly discussed the extraction methods, antioxidant activities in vivo and in vitro, structures, main monosaccharide compositions of important plant polysaccharides from traditional medicines.
    The preparation of polysaccharides from traditional medicines
    Antioxidant activities
    Conflict of interest
    Acknowledgements The Project Sponsored by the Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars, State Education Ministry. The work was also supported by Chongqing Key Research Project of Basic Science & Frontier Technology (No. cstc2017jcyjBX0012), Scientific and Technological Research Program of Chongqing Municipal Education Commission (Grant No. KJ1400523), Foundation Project of Chongqing Normal University (No. 14XYY020), Chongqing General Research Program of Basic Research and Frontier Technology (No. cstc2015jcyjA10054), Chongqing Normal University Postgraduate's Research and Innovation Project (No. YKC17004), Open Foundation Project of Engineering Research Center for Bioactive Substances (No. AS201614), and Chongqing University Students' Training Project of Innovation & Undertaking (No. 201610637076), China.